Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 20:29:20 -0500 (EST)
From: Les Jones 
Subject: ZTerm 0.9 FAQ 1.6


This file answers many Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
about ZTerm 0.9. All ZTerm users should read the FAQ
before sending questions to Dave Alverson. Besides
answering questions, the FAQ contains tips, bug reports,
and ResEdit hacks.

Changes since the last version:

bug:  Phone number field
bug:  VT100 emulation
Q?:   Why can't I download a damn thing?
Q?:   How can I make ZModem binary downloads from UNIX more reliable?
Q?:   How can I edit the colors ZTerm uses for ANSI graphics?
Q?:   How can I emulate function keys on a PowerBook?
Q?:   How can I use the numeric keypad for entering numbers?
Tip:  Creating a folder for scripts.

Many sections have been updated. In particular, the directions
for changing ZTerm's terminal font are more clear. The
directions also note that changing the font seems to limit the
display to 40 or so columns. If anyone knows a workaround for
this problem, please let me know.

P.S. Dave Alverson says that ZTerm 1.0 will be released
during the first quarter of 1994.  
  
  
  
  
  




                                  ZTerm 0.9 FAQ
  
                                  by Les Jones
  
                                   Version 1.6
                             updated January 6, 1994
  
  
  
  
  
                   For best results, display in 9 point Monaco
                           with rulers set to 7 inches.
  
  
  
  
  
  
    Contents:
  
  ! = New section!
  + = Section updated since the last version of the FAQ
  
  Distribution and Posting Information
  Credits
  Copyright Notice and Trademarks
  Disclaimer of Warranty
  Contacting the Author
  Other ZTerm Information and Software
  
  [1.00]  ZTerm's Version History
  
  [1.01]  What's the current version?
  [1.02]  What features will be in the next version?
 +[1.03]  When will the next version be released?
  
  
  [2.00]  Registration and Support
  
  [2.01]  Why should I register (pay the shareware fee)?
  [2.02]  Will I get technical support if I register?
  [2.03]  If I registered an earlier version of ZTerm, do I have to
          send in an upgrade fee?
  [2.04]  What is Dave's new Internet address?
  
  
  [3.00]  Quick Fixes for Common Problems
  
  [3.01]  Relax. Don't worry. Have a homebrew.
  [3.02]  Select a download folder to prevent -120 downloading error.
  [3.03]  Make sure ZTerm is sending data to the correct port.
  [3.04]  Make sure call waiting is disabled.
  [3.05]  Make sure you have a hardware handshaking cable.
  [3.06]  Install Apple's Hardware System Update 2.0.
  [3.07]  Quit other programs which use the modem.
  [3.08]  Quit ZTerm. Turn the modem off and on. Launch ZTerm.
  [3.09]  Restart the computer.
  [3.10]  Restart the computer with extensions off.
  [3.11]  Disable fax software and fax auto-answer.
 +[3.12]  Move the ZPhoneList out of the ZTerm folder.
          (But don't throw it away!)
  
  
  [4.00]  Known Bugs, ResEdit Fixes, and Cool ResEdit Hacks
  
  [4.01]  Queue dialing
  [4.02]  File appends
  [4.03]  Missing download folder
  [4.04]  UNIX and Opus settings
  [4.05]  Sending returns in scripts
  [4.06]  Text pacing
  [4.07]  Unmarking all services
  [4.08]  Dialing with the scroll buffer scrolled back
 ![4.09]  Phone number field
 ![4.10]  VT100 emulation
  [4.11]  Non-bugs
 +[4.12]  Increasing the port buffer size with ResEdit
 +[4.13]  Changing the terminal font with ResEdit.
  
  
  [5.00]  Dialing
  
  [5.01]  Why is one service in the Dial menu and in the Dial
          directory in outline?
  [5.02]  I started ZTerm and the only service listed is called
          Local. Wa' hoppen?
  [5.03]  My ZPhoneList with a kajillion phone numbers and settings
          got trashed. Am I screwed?
 +[5.04]  Why won't ZTerm send my modem initialization string?
  [5.05]  Using multiple ZPhoneLists.
  [5.06]  Tip: changing the data rate.
  [5.07]  Tip: changing parity, data bits, and stop bits.
  [5.08]  Tip: dialing the current service.
  [5.09]  Tip: adding a separator line to the Dial menu.
  
  
  [6.00]  Connecting
  
  [6.01]  When ZTerm dials, the dialing line has the A cut off the
          dial string, like this: TDT 691-7094. What's the deal?
  [6.02]  Why is ZTerm so slow at sending passwords on some services?
  [6.03]  Why isn't there a setting for 14400 bps?
  [6.04]  What data rate should I use with a 14400 bps modem?
 +[6.05]  How can I prevent my modem from constantly dropping
          carrier, especially when I'm receiving lots of
          information on the screen?
 +[6.06]  Why won't my Global Village modem connect at 14400 bps?
  [6.07]  Why won't my Global Village modem hangup?
  [6.08]  How can I make my Global Village modem detect a busy
          signal?
  
  
  [7.00]  File Transfers
  
 ![7.01]  Why can't I download a damn thing?
  [7.02]  This text, binary, MacBinary, and Smart MacBinary stuff
          makes my head spin. Which should I use?
  [7.03]  When I download Mac files from a PC BBS, the files have
          generic icons and are unusable. What went wrong?
  [7.04]  Which protocol should I use?
  [7.05]  Does ZTerm support batch ZModem downloads?
  [7.06]  Interrupting ZModem downloads is messy. What's a modem
          freak to do?
  [7.07]  Can I use ZModem from my VAX or UNIX account?
  [7.08]  How do I prevent massive CRC errors during ZModem
          text downloads from UNIX?
 ![7.09]  How can I make ZModem binary downloads from UNIX more
          reliable?
  [7.10]  I have other transfer problems with UNIX. What's Dave
          been smokin'?
  [7.11]  How can I do ZModem uploads to Delphi?
  [7.12]  Where's YModem-G Send?
  [7.13]  Why does YModem work on some systems and not others?
  [7.14]  Using hardware compression makes my uploads and downloads
          slower. Was ist los?
 +[7.15]  If I have the Kermit/VT102/etc. Tool, will ZTerm support
          Kermit/VT102/etc.? Are any ZModem tools available?
  [7.16]  How can I resume downloads interrupted by a meddling
          cat?
  [7.17]  Hellfire tarnation and a monkey! Why's my transfer
          efficiency so low?
  
  
  [8.00]  Sound, ANSI Graphics, and Color
  
  [8.01]  Why oh why won't the ZTerm sounds play?
  [8.02]  Can I use sounds other than the ones that come with ZTerm?
  [8.03]  Is there any limit on the length of the sounds?
  [8.04]  How do I turn my modem speaker down or off?
  [8.05]  How do I get ANSI graphics when connecting to a PC BBS?
  [8.06]  I did all of that and the ANSI graphics still look a
          little funny. What gives?
 ![8.07]  How can I edit the colors ZTerm uses for ANSI graphics?
  [8.08]  How can I add excitement to my dull and monotonous
          existence?
  
  
  [9.00]  VT100 Emulation
  
  [9.01]  I'm wiggin' out, Les. Why don't the home, end, page
          up, and page down keys on my extended keyboard work?
  [9.02]  Why don't the f1-f4 editing keys on my extended keyboard
          work?
  [9.03]  How can I emulate a control key on a Mac Plus?
  [9.04]  How can I emulate an escape key on a Mac Plus?
 ![9.05]  How can I emulate function keys on a PowerBook?
  [9.06]  How can I emulate a numeric keypad on a PowerBook?
 ![9.07]  How can I use the numeric keypad for entering numbers?
  [9.08]  Tip: positioning the cursor with the mouse.
  
  
  [10.00] Text and Text Files
  
  [10.01] Can I make the terminal font bigger?
  [10.02] Why does onscreen text look so crummy in anything but 9 or
          12 point?
  [10.03] Will ZTerm save text files in something other than
          TeachText?
  [10.04] How can I increase the size of the scroll buffer?
  [10.05] Why do some characters get corrupted when I copy text from
          my word processor and paste it into ZTerm?
  
  
  [11.00] Macros and Scripting
  
  [11.01] How do I know the script is running?
  [11.02] How do I cancel a script?
  [11.03] How do I send an escape/linefeed/etc. in a script?
  [11.04] Do I have to use the Wait for "da da da" prompt syntax?
  [11.05] Why is ZTerm sending only part of a line?
  [11.06] How can I send quotation marks within a send statement?
  [11.07] What does error -49 mean?
  [11.08] I'm goin' nuts! Why won't my login script run?
  [11.09] Login script example.
  [11.10] Tip: sending a sig with a script and macro.
  [11.11] Other uses of scripts and macros
 ![11.12] Tip: Creating a folder for scripts.
  
  An Easter Egg
  
  
  
  
  Distribution and Posting Information
  
  America Online
  I always send the current version to America Online. Use File
  Search keyword "zterm".
  
  Delphi
  The current version of the FAQ is available in the Communication
  forum in the Macintosh ICONtact forum.
  
  FTP
  I will also send the current version to
  macgifts@mac.archive.umich.edu, a mail exploder which delivers the
  file to the sumex-aim and umich FTP sites, as well as other,
  lesser-known  FTP sites. The following list shows the location of
  the FAQ at various FTP sites, along with the appropriate
  directories. Sumex and umich are two primary FTP sites. The other
  sites mirror the contents of either sumex or umich. The mirrors are
  often easier to access, especially during business hours. Note that
  the archie.au site is in Australia and that src.doc.ic.ac.uk is in
  the United Kingdom. To conserve limited Internet resources, use the
  site closest to home.
  
           FTP site                                Directory
  
  sumex-aim.stanford.edu                          info-mac/comm/info
  wuarchive.wustl.edu                     mirrors/info-mac/comm/info
  archie.au                            micros/mac/info-mac/comm/info
  mac.archive.umich.edu                       mac/misc/documentation
  wuarchive.wustl.edu mirrors/archive.umich.edu/mac/misc/documentati
  archie.au                  micros/mac/umich/mac/misc/documentation
  src.doc.ic.ac.uk         packages/mac/umich/mac/misc/documentation
  
  Usenet
  I post the most current version of the FAQ to the comp.sys.mac.comm
  and comp.sys.mac.apps Usenet newsgroups.
  
  Email
  Harris Upham has generously volunteered to provide the FAQ via
  email. He requests that you put "ZTerm" somewhere in the subject
  line so he can easily identify FAQ requests. Harris is being very
  generous with his time. Please mail him only if you can't get the
  FAQ by other means. The address is hupham@fscvax.fsc.mass.edu.
  
  
  Credits and Thanks
  
  Many thanks to the folks who have contributed, knowingly or
  unknowingly. While compiling this FAQ, I was often helped by the
  net community, particularly readers of the Usenet newsgroup
  comp.sys.mac.comm and the Info-Mac Digest. Thanks to all the
  helpful people out there in netland! In rough chronological order:
  
  Neil Schulman
  Joe Dellwo
  Adam Toner
  Rick McCormack
  Scott Macrae
  David Platt
  Daniel Friedan
  Drew Wade
  Gregory Youngs
  Roy Wood
  Gary Snow
  Peter Middleton
  Eric Hoffmann
  Jay Bourland
  Pete Halverson
  Henri Schueler
  Miles Abernathy
  Jeff Kwan
  Kent Ritchie
  Davey Silon
  David Ray
  Walter Ian Kaye
  Harris Upham
  Shigeru Yamamoto
  Julian Vrieslander
  James Trammell
  Rick Zeman
  Joel Schulman
  Keith Corwin
  Stefano Toria. 
  
  Others have contributed material which I may use in upcoming
  versions of the FAQ.
  
  Special thanks to ZTerm author Dave Alverson for providing
  information about the next release, and for releasing a great piece
  of software as shareware.
  
  
  Copyright Notice and Trademarks
  
  This document is copyright 1993 by Leslie Jones. All rights
  reserved. I ask for no money, but please give credit when quoting
  information in this document. Crediting the FAQ will make others
  aware of its existence. Unmodified copies of this document may be
  freely copied and distributed electronically, and may be uploaded
  to FTP sites which allow anonymous login, nonprofit BBSs, and
  commercial online services which charge no more than a normal
  connect fee for downloading files.
  
  For-profit distribution on physical media, including but not
  limited to paper, floppy disk, and CD-ROM, is prohibited without
  written permission. Explicit permission is granted to the
  moderators and archivists of the sumex-aim archives to include this
  document on the info-mac CD-ROM. Explicit permission is also
  granted to nonprofit user groups to distribute this document on
  their disk of the month.
  
  This document contains the names of trademarked products. The
  trademarks are the property of their respective owners, and are
  used here only in an editorial capacity.
  
  Disclaimer of Warranty
  
  This document is a volunteer effort. Every attempt has been made to
  provide accurate information, but the author and contributors
  accept no responsibility for actions resulting from the use of this
  free information. The user of this information assumes all
  responsibility for damages, loss of information, loss of time, and
  cost of repairs. THIS INFORMATION IS PROVIDED AS IS WITH NO
  WARRANTY OF ANY KIND.
  
  Contacting the Author
  
  In preparation for a change of Internet accounts, I'm changing my
  preferred mail address. To make corrections and suggestions, send
  Internet mail to lesliejonz@aol.com, or send America Online mail to
  LeslieJonz. If mail to that address bounces, send Internet mail to
  ljones@utkvx.utk.edu. UTK is the University of Tennessee,
  Knoxville, the land of the free and the home of the Vols.
  
  
  
  
  Other ZTerm Information and Software
  
  Information
  
  This FAQ answers questions relating specifically to ZTerm 0.9.
  There are other sources for information of interest to ZTerm users.
  
  General communications
  For answers to more general questions about Macintosh
  telecommunications and networking, please read Eric Rosen's
  excellent comp-sys-mac-comm FAQ, available for anonymous FTP from
  sumex-aim.stanford.edu and mac.archive.umich.edu. Everyone who uses
  a modem should keep Eric's FAQ on their hard drive.
  
  File conversion
  For answers to questions about file conversion ("I downloaded a
  file that ends in cpt/sit/dd/arc/lzh/pit/etc. How do I open it?"),
  get David Lemson's exhaustive report compression-util-table. The
  ZTerm manual briefly describes the most common Macintosh
  compression formats.
  
  Modem configuration
  For information about configuring your modem, consult your modem's
  manual. I address specific problems in the FAQ, but there really is
  no substitute for a working knowledge of the Hayes command
  language. When your AT command reference is torn at the edges and
  soiled with the dirt of your hands, it is then you will have
  mastered the art of telecommunications, little grasshopper.
  
  Usenet
  If you have Usenet access, questions about Macintosh-specific
  telecommunication hardware and software should be directed to
  comp.sys.mac.comm. Questions about modems and telecommunications in
  general should be directed to comp.dcom.modems. I often read
  c.s.m.comm and answer questions about ZTerm by searching for the
  string "zt".
  
  
  Software
  
  ZTerm Phone Directory Listing
  Denise McElroy (dmcelroy@bonnie.ics.uci.edu) released this
  application, which reads your ZPhoneList file and produces a text
  file containing the names and phone numbers of all services. If
  your ZPhoneList ever gets erased or corrupted, you'll be glad you
  used it. This application may be also able to extract the phone
  numbers from a corrupted ZPhoneList.
  
  ZTerm Speed Patch
  Jon Snell (jonsnell@aol.com) wrote a 16 color palette resource and
  ResEdit instructions for installing the palette. By using the hack
  and setting the monitor depth to 16 colors, ZTerm users will
  experience faster screen redraws while still seeing the correct
  colors. Users with 2400 bps modems will experience little or no
  speed increase. In my experience, the patch makes ZTerm faster in
  16 colors, but a little slower in 256 colors. Highly recommended if
  you normally use 16 color video. With the patch installed, you can
  edit the colors ZTerm uses for ANSI graphics. See section eight for
  directions.
  
  Star Trek sounds
  Star Trek fans now have their own sounds for ZTerm! The sounds are
  available on America Online as M's ZSounds, and at sumex-aim as
  star-trek-comm-sounds in the info-mac/snd directory. These are the
  coolest ZTerm sounds I've used. The sounds are as follows:
  
  Connect:   Worf saying "Link established. Receiving."
  Filedone:  Worf saying "Transfer of information complete."
  Termbell:  Enterprise computer beep.
  
  
  
  
  [1.00]  ZTerm's Version History
  
  [1.01]  What's the current version?
  
  ZTerm 0.9 is the current version. It is dated February 8, 1992.
  Before 0.9 was released, someone hacked 0.85 with ResEdit and
  released it as 1.0. There is a more recent hack called 0.93 XK
  (eXtra Keys), which was released by a user group. Anyone may modify
  ZTerm with ResEdit for their personal use, but distributing
  modified versions of copyrighted software is illegal. If you
  discover an interesting ResEdit hack, send it to me and I'll
  publish it in the FAQ.
  
  Dave Alverson sends official releases to America Online,
  CompuServe, and GEnie. You can also expect the newest version to
  quickly appear on BBSs and FTP sites.
  
  [1.02]  What features will be in the next version?
  
  -Support for Kermit file transfers.
  -Implementation of 16 color ANSI graphics, instead of the current 8
   colors.
  -Some additions to the scripting language.
  -A scripts folder, possibly.
  -Bug fixes.
  
  There may be other features, but these are the ones Dave Alverson
  has announced.
  
  [1.03]  When will the next version be released?
  
  Dave Alverson says that ZTerm 1.0 should appear in the first
  quarter of 1994.
  
  
  [2.00]  Registration and Support
  
  [2.01]  Why should I register (pay the shareware fee)?
  
  This is a tough question. There is no legal precedent to show that
  people can be forced to pay for shareware, so no one will come
  knocking on your door in the middle of the night. On the other
  hand, many of us in the computer community feel that you should pay
  for shareware which you use often, just because it seems to us to
  be the right thing to do. Shareware authors put a lot of work into
  their software, and they deserve compensation. Shareware authors
  also put a lot of faith in the computer community by releasing
  their products as shareware. They trust that people will
  voluntarily pay for a product they need and use. I for one don't
  think we should take advantage of people's trust.
  
  There are also practical reasons for registering. Registering
  encourages the author to update his software. More importantly, the
  author is more likely to continue to release his work as shareware
  if people pay the registration fee.
  
  The copy of ZTerm which ships with some Global Village modems has
  been paid for by the nice people at Global Village, who know a good
  piece of software when they see it.
  
  [2.02]  Will I get technical support if I register?
  
  Yes. Dave supports ZTerm through paper mail, email, and in
  conferences on America Online, CompuServe, and GEnie. The locations
  of the conferences are listed in the Support dialog under the Misc
  menu. Registered users receive his home phone number and can call
  him for direct phone support. When was the last time you called a
  Microsoft programmer at home?
  
  If you send Dave a question, include the registration number you
  received when you registered ZTerm, as Dave almost certainly gives
  priority to registered users.
  
  Global Village handles technical support for the Global Village
  version of ZTerm.
  
  [2.03]  If I registered an earlier version of ZTerm, do I have to
          send in an upgrade fee?
  
  No. Dave Alverson, like most shareware authors, doesn't charge
  upgrade fees. This is another advantage of shareware.
  
  [2.04]  What is Dave's new Internet address?
  
  The address given in ZTerm 0.9 is out of date. Dave's new Internet
  address is davea@xetron.com, and is his preferred mail address.
  
  
  [3.00]  Quick Fixes for Common Problems
  
  [3.01]  Relax. Don't worry. Have a homebrew.
  
  Keep your head tool cool. Read the manual, read this FAQ, and
  remember that tens of thousands of people have used ZTerm
  successfully.
  
  Before you use ZTerm for the first time:
  
  [3.02]  Select a download folder to prevent -120 downloading error.
  
  Before downloading files for the first time, you must select a
  default download folder by selecting Receive Folder from the
  Settings menu. If you can upload files but can't download them, you
  probably haven't selected a receive folder. Remember to select a
  new folder when moving to a new computer.
  
  [3.03]  Make sure ZTerm is sending data to the correct port.
  
  An external modem can be connected to the modem or printer ports.
  Find out which yours is attached to, select Modem Preferences from
  the Settings menu, and select the port. Alternatively, you can hold
  down the shift key while ZTerm loads to select the port. If you
  have a PowerBook with an internal modem, open the PowerBook control
  panel and select the option for an internal modem.
  
  All things being equal, you should connect an external modem to the
  modem port. The computer gives priority to the modem port so that
  other printer port activities don't interfere with modem
  activities. Also, all AppleTalk devices must be connected to the
  printer port, which is the only AppleTalk-capable port.
  
  [3.04]  Make sure call waiting is disabled.
  
  To disable call waiting on a touch tone phone, insert the string
  "*70," before the phone number, like this:
  
  ATDT *70,555-5555
  
  The comma is a Hayes command which makes the modem wait for two
  seconds. Someone has suggested using w instead of a comma. The w
  tells the modem to wait for a dial tone. On a pulse dial phone, use
  "1170," instead of "*70,". One reader reports that *67 enables
  privacy (disables caller ID at the remote phone) for some telephone
  companies.
  
  [3.05]  Make sure you have a hardware handshaking cable.
  
  If you have hardware handshaking turned on in the Connection
  dialog, consult your modem manual to make sure you have a hardware
  handshaking cable. You can get away without one for awhile, but
  they are ultimately necessary for high speed modems.
  
  A diagram of a correctly-wired hardware handshaking cable is hidden
  in the Apple Modem Tool 1.1. Open a copy in ResEdit and examine
  PICT resource #20000. In the Apple Modem Tool 1.5, the PICT
  resources are #20808 for DIN-8 to DIN-8 wiring, and #20825 fro
  DIN-8 to DB-25 wiring. The new Apple Modem Tool 1.5 has a button
  labeled Cabling, but it was grayed out on my machine. I suspect the
  button would work with an Apple Express Modem. Any information on
  the cabling button would be appreciated.
  
  To find out more about hardware handshaking, read issues #179 and
  #180 of TidBITS, Adam Engst's free electronic magazine, available
  from FTP sites and online services.
  
  [3.06]  Install Apple's Hardware System Update 2.0.1.
  
  The hardware update (AKA Hardware Enabler) corrects some problems
  with high speed communications under System 7.1 on the following
  machines: LC, LC II, IIsi, IIvx, IIvi, Classic II, Quadra 900, and
  Quadra 950. The updater solves other problems on these and other
  machines, so users of System 7.1 should probably have it anyway.
  The updater should NOT be used on Performas. 
  
  I mention the hardware update out of a sense of duty to inform you
  that it exists. No one has actually reported that it solved any of
  their telecommunications problems. On the contrary, reports are
  filtering in that the update causes some problems of its own. Use
  your own judgment.
  
  Day-to-day fixes:
  
  [3.07]  Quit other programs which use the modem.
  
  Communications programs that access the modem are sometimes
  reluctant to give up control of the port the modem is attached to.
  Quit all other telecommunications software, as well as any phone
  book programs that can dial phone numbers through the modem.
  
  [3.08]  Quit ZTerm. Turn the modem off and on. Launch ZTerm.
  
  This technique solves numerous connection and downloading problems.
  Among other things, it closes the communications port, which may
  have been left open by another application. It also forces ZTerm to
  resend the modem initialization string.
  
  [3.09]  Restart the computer.
  
  Restarting is a standard way of solving transient problems of any
  kind.
  
  [3.10]  Restart the computer with extensions off.
  
  Extensions (inits and cdevs under System 6) cause more than their
  share of problems, and should always be suspect if the machine is
  crashing or freezing. Under System 7, restart with the shift key
  held down to prevent extensions from loading. Under System 6,
  manually remove all inits and cdevs from the System Folder and
  restart.
  
  See also 3.11.
  
  A few final possibilities:
  
  [3.11]  Disable fax software and fax auto-answer.
  
  Fax software may prevent ZTerm from accessing the serial port to
  which the modem is attached. Remove fax extensions, control panels
  and Chooser devices from the System folder. Fax Chooser devices are
  especially insidious. Chooser devices aren't disabled when you
  restart with extensions off under System 7. If they were, print
  drivers would be disabled, and you wouldn't be able to print.
  
  Consult your fax modem manual to learn how to disable fax
  auto-answer.
  
  [3.12]  Move the ZPhoneList out of the ZTerm folder.
          (But don't throw it away!)
  
  Besides storing phone numbers, the ZPhoneList contains all of
  ZTerm's settings and preferences, which may have been misset or
  corrupted. If ZTerm starts doing really, really bizarre things, you
  should suspect a corrupted ZPhoneList. 
  
  If you remove the file from the ZTerm folder, ZTerm will create a
  new one using its default settings. You can also restore the file
  from a backup disk. If that doesn't solve the problem, put your old
  ZPhoneList back in the ZTerm folder so you won't lose your phone
  numbers.
  
  
  [4.00]  Known Bugs, ResEdit Fixes, and ResEdit Hacks
  
  [4.01]  Queue dialing
  
  When queue dialing, the dial window remains open after a connection
  is made.
  
  [4.02]  File appends
  
  Appended text is inserted at the beginning of the file, rather than
  at the end.
  
  [4.03]  Missing download folder
  
  If you attempt to download without selecting a default download
  folder, ZTerm reports a -120 error instead of prompting you to
  select a download folder.
  
  [4.04]  UNIX and Opus settings
  
  The radio buttons may change when you open the ZModem Options
  dialog, but the settings remain unchanged, so the bug is not
  serious.
  
  [4.05]  Sending returns in scripts
  
  When ZTerm sends a return by itself in a script, it usually sends a
  space, then the return. To fix the problem, open a copy of ZTerm in
  ResEdit. Open the CODE resource, then open CODE ID=2. At offset
  52B4 find the string 671E 4A6E FFEE. Change 671E to 601E.
  
  [4.06]  Text pacing
  
  If text pacing is set to wait for a line prompt, ZTerm will usually
  wait for about 5 seconds even if it receives the prompt character.
  To fix this bug, open a copy of ZTerm in ResEdit, open the CODE
  resource, then open CODE ID=2. At offset 5082, find the string 3B40
  CAC0. Change CAC0 to CABE.
  
  [4.07]  Unmarking all services
  
  Holding down shift-option and selecting Dial Marked is supposed to
  unmark all services, but doesn't.
  
  [4.08]  Dialing with the scroll buffer scrolled back
  
  When dialing with the scroll buffer scrolled back, ZTerm crashes
  when a connection is made. This bug does not occur on all systems,
  but occurs reproducibly on some.
  
  [4.09]  Phone number field
  
  When a large number of characters are in the phone number field,
  ZTerm adds strange spacing between some characters. This often
  happens if you include a calling card number in the phone number
  field.
  
  The workaround is to delete all spaces between the numbers.
  
  [4.10]  VT100 emulation
  
  During VT100 emulation, ZTerm sometimes becomes confused about what
  line the cursor is on. You probably won't notice this unless you're
  in editing mode.
  
  Setting the window size to 24 X 80 helps alleviate the problem to
  some degree, but there's no getting around the problem completely.
  
  [4.11]  Non-bugs
  
  When the Dial directory is open, command-q invokes queue dialing,
  rather than quitting ZTerm. According to the ZTerm docs, this is
  exactly what's supposed to happen. Several other command key
  shortcuts have different meanings when the Dial directory is open.
  
  When ANSI graphics leave the main window and enter the scroll
  buffer, they lose their special formatting and color and become
  text. This is described in the ZTerm docs.
  
  [4.12]  Increasing the port buffer size with ResEdit
  
  Open a copy of the ZPhoneList in ResEdit. Doubleclick the zSet
  resource. The first two bytes are the port buffer size. X'1000 =
  4K. X'2000 = 8K. X'3000 = 12K, etc. Settings higher than X'7 (28K)
  are reported to be unreliable. 
  
  When you finish, save changes, quit ResEdit, and launch ZTerm. Now
  choose Port Stats from the Misc menu. You should see the new serial
  buffer size.
  
  Increasing the port buffer size can eliminate some downloading
  problems, as well as problems which occur when large amounts of
  data are coming to the screen. Stefano Toria said it best: "I set
  it at 28K and I am perfectly happy now, I never lose a single bit
  any more, I can multitask ZTerm, receive huuuge files whilst
  playing Cumulonimbus, and my wife is expecting our third child
  :-)."
  
  [4.13]  Changing the terminal font with ResEdit.
  
  Shigeru Yamamoto asked Dave how to use ZTerm with a Japanese font.
  Dave's instructions follow: 
  
  "If you want to try a Japanese font, here's what to do: open the
  ZPhoneList file with ResEdit and open the zSet resource. (Leave the
  one in the program file alone, it's only used as defaults when the
  ZPhoneList is created.)  At offset 80 hex in this resource is the
  font name used when emulation is set to VT100. At 90 hex is the
  font for PC-ANSI. They are Pascal strings, so the first byte is the
  number of characters in the name. They are fixed fields of 16
  bytes, so the longest name that will work is 15 bytes. Make sure
  you don't change the size of the field, because everything after it
  is position dependent."
  
  So to change the font ZTerm uses for VT100 emulation, open the
  ZPhoneList in ResEdit, doubleclick the zSet resource, then
  doubleclick the ID 1 resource. Scroll down to the line that begins
  with "000080". This is offset 80. It should look like this:
  
      000080 067A 742D 4D61 6320 zt-Mac 
  
  The "06" is the number of characters in the font name ("zt-mac" is
  6 characters). First, change the 06 to the number of characters in
  the font name. If you're using Courier, change the 06 to 07. Then
  change the font name from zt-Mac to whatever font you're want.
  Here's what it would look like if you changed the font to Courier:
  
      000080 0743 6F75 7269 6572 Courier
  
  I've tried the hack and found that it works only moderately well.
  The hack reduces line lengths to about 40 lines, which isn't very
  useful.
  
  (Incidentally, ZTerm sure gets around. Harris Upham sent me a ZTerm
  hack that allows ZTerm to display two-byte Korean HanTalk
  characters. Someone else told me that there is a Swiss version of
  ZTerm.)
  

  [5.00]  Dialing
  
  [5.01]  Why is one service in the Dial menu and in the Dial
          directory in outline?
  
  That's the default service. When you launch ZTerm, that service
  will be the current service. To set the default service, open the
  Dial directory, hold down the command key, and click on the service
  you want to be the default. You can also hold down the command key
  and select the service from the Dial menu.
  
  [5.02]  I started ZTerm and the only service listed is called
          Local. Wa' hoppen?
  
  ZTerm didn't find your ZPhoneList in the ZTerm folder, so it
  created a new one with the default entry Local. Find your
  ZPhoneList and place it in the root level of the ZTerm folder.
  
  [5.03]  My ZPhoneList with a kajillion phone numbers and settings
          got trashed. Am I screwed?
  
  You're screwed. Always back up your ZPhoneList when you perform
  your routine backup. Or, to put it another way, whenever you think
  "Man, I really oughta back up my files one of these days," instead
  think "Man, I really oughta back up my files, including my
  ZPhoneList, one of these days."
  
  Several reports on comp.sys.mac.comm indicate that the ZPhoneList
  can be corrupted when restarting a crashed Mac. Apparently this
  only occurs if you crash after making changes to the ZPhoneList
  settings without saving the changes. You can prevent this problem
  by choosing Save Setup from the Dial menu whenever you change
  ZTerm's settings.
  
  If your ZPhoneList becomes corrupted, you might be able to extract
  the service names and numbers using Denise McElroy's ZTerm Phone
  Directory Listing, available from FTP sites and America Online.
  
  [5.04]  Why won't ZTerm send my modem initialization string?
  
  ZTerm won't send the modem init string if it can't find the modem.
  Make sure the modem is turned on and connected to the correct port.
  
  ZTerm also won't initialize the modem if the default service
  doesn't have any characters in the Phone Number field. To fix the
  problem, type some characters in the field. The characters don't
  have to be a phone number. "I am the Lizard King" works just fine.
  So does a couple of spaces.
  
  [5.05]  Using multiple ZPhoneLists.
  
  When you launch ZTerm, it looks for a file called ZPhoneList in the
  ZTerm folder. To force ZTerm to use a different ZPhoneList, quit
  ZTerm and doubleclick on the other ZPhoneList, which does not have
  to be in the ZTerm folder. If multiple ZPhoneLists are present in
  the ZTerm folder, they must have different names.
  
  To force ZTerm to create a new ZPhoneList, rename the old one, or
  move it out of the ZTerm folder, and launch ZTerm.
  
  [5.06]  Tip: changing the data rate.
  
  You can change the data rate without going to the connection
  dialog. Click on the data rate string at the bottom of the window
  to get a popup menu for changing the data rate.
  
  [5.07]  Tip: changing parity, data bits, and stop bits.
  
  Likewise, clicking on the string to the right of the data rate
  string produces a popup menu for selecting N-8-1, E-7-1, or O-7-1
  settings.
  
  [5.08] Tip: dialing the current service.
  
  Command-shift-d normally dials marked services. If no services are
  marked, command-shift-d dials the current service. (The current
  service is the one whose name appears at the top of the window.)
  
  [5.09]  Tip: adding a separator line to the Dial menu.
  
  Create a new service. In the Service Name field, type one or more
  "-" (hyphens). The Dial menu will now have a standard gray
  separator line. To take advantage of the separator, some of your
  service names must come alphabetically before the hyphen. The
  easiest way to do this is to prefix some of the service names with
  spaces, which forces them to the top of the Dial menu.
  
  P.S. I have lost the name of the person who posted this tip to
  comp.sys.mac.comm. If that person would be so kind as to send me
  their name, I'll add it to the credits.
  
  
  [6.00]  Connecting
  
  [6.01]  When ZTerm dials, the dialing line has the A cut off the
          dial string, like this: TDT 691-7094. What's the deal?
  
  First, make sure your modem is turned on, that the modem cable is
  properly connected to the computer and to the phone jack, and that
  ZTerm is sending data to the correct port.
  
  Assuming all is well with the modem connection, the consensus seems
  to be that this behavior occurs because a previous comm program
  left the communications port open. If you experience this problem,
  quit ZTerm, turn the modem off and then back on, and relaunch
  ZTerm. One person reported that changing the data rate from 57600
  to 38400 solved his problem. Another fixed the problem on his
  PowerBook by adding a comma to the beginning of the predial
  initialization string.
  
  Thanks to everyone on comp.sys.mac.comm and comp.dcom.modems for
  their valuable feedback on this problem!
  
  [6.02]  Why is ZTerm so slow at sending passwords on some services?
  
  You have "Wait for character echo" turned on in the Text Pacing
  options, but the remote system isn't echoing the password
  characters, so ZTerm waits 5 seconds, times out, and sends the next
  character. Turn off the "Wait for character echo" option for that
  service.
  
  [6.03]  Why isn't there a setting for 14400 bps?
  
  The setting in the connection dialog controls the DTE speed (AKA
  terminal speed, Mac-to-modem speed, serial port speed, or what
  ZTerm calls the data rate), not the DCE speed (AKA connection
  speed, modem-to-modem speed, or carrier speed). 14400 is a DCE
  speed, not a DTE speed.
  
  [6.04]  What data rate should I use with a 14400 bps modem?
  
  With a high speed modem, you want to set the serial port speed
  higher than the carrier speed so that the modem won't get ahead of
  the computer. Also, most v.32bis (14400 bps) modems feature
  hardware compression methods such as v.42bis and MNP 5. To take
  advantage of hardware compression, the serial port speed must be
  higher than the carrier speed.
  
  When using a 14400 bps modem to connect to another 14400 bps modem,
  set the DTE speed in the Connection dialog to 19200. You can
  experiment with higher values, but 19200 should work reliably. Some
  users report that high DTE speeds are unreliable when AppleTalk is
  enabled in the Chooser DA. Many people experience problems with
  57600 DTE speeds.
  
  [6.05]  How can I prevent my modem from constantly dropping
          carrier, especially when I'm receiving lots of
          information on the screen?
  
  Tell the modem to ignore DTR. The appropriate string for most
  modems is &D0. Turning hardware handshaking off will also work. 
  
  See also 3.04 if you have call waiting.
  See also 3.11 if you have a fax modem.
  
  [6.06]  Why won't my Global Village modem connect at 14400 bps?
  
  Send the modem an AT&V command, which will display all settings. If
  you see \J1, you've found the problem. \J1 enables port rate
  adjust. This means that the DTE speed will adjust to the DCE speed.
  But if you connect at 14400 bps, you're in trouble, since ZTerm
  can't send data to the serial port at 14400 bps. To fix the
  problem, send AT\J0 (zero) to the modem. Better yet, add \J0 to the
  modem initialization string in the Modem Preferences dialog.
  
  [6.07]  Why won't my Global Village modem hang up?
  
  The modem's &D setting and ZTerm's setting for hardware (DTR)
  hangup are conflicting. The setting is in ZTerm's Modem Preferences
  dialog. Send the command AT&V to your modem to find your &D
  setting, and set the hardware hangup according to the following
  table:
  
   If your modem is              Use this setting in ZTerm's
     set to this:                     Modem Preferences:
  
       &D0                    Set Hardware Hangup (DTR) to off
       &D1                    Set Hardware Hangup (DTR) to off.
       &D2                    Set Hardware Hangup (DTR) to on.
       &D3                    Set Hardware Hangup (DTR) to on.
  
  Note that I'm assuming you've set &D to the correct setting. If
  not, all bets are off. Check the "Hardware Hangup (DTR)" box to
  turn hardware hangup on. Uncheck the box to turn it off. If all
  else fails, turn DTR hangup off. DTR hangup is faster, but software
  hangup works almost every time.
  
  [6.08]  How can I make my Global Village modem detect a busy
  signal?
  
  Some Global Village modems can't properly detect a busy signal when
  dialing certain types of terminal servers. James Trammell
  (trammell@quip.eecs.umich.edu) discovered that placing one or two
  commas after the phone number solved his problem. When dialing with
  ZTerm's built-in phone book, type the commas after the phone number
  in the Connection dialog. When dialing manually, type "ATDT
  nnn-nnnn,,".
  
  The comma is a standard Hayes command which causes the modem to
  pause during dialing. On most modems, the length of the pause is 2
  seconds, but you can set the length of the delay with the S-8
  S-register.
  
  I should note that the problem is with the modem, not with ZTerm,
  and that the same solution works with other communications
  software.
  
  
  [7.00]  File Transfers
  
  [7.01]  Why can't I download a damn thing?
  
  If you can't download anything, and if you get a -120 WriteData
  error when you try, you haven't selected a default receive folder.
  Go to the Settings menu and choose Receive Folder.
  
  If you consistently lose data or get ZRPos errors at the same point
  in the download, try increasing the port buffer size using the
  directions in section 4.12.
  
  If you get massive CRC errors during ZModem text downloads from
  UNIX, see section 7.08.
  
  If you're having problems with ZModem binary downloads from UNIX,
  see section 7.09.
  
  [7.02]  This text, binary, MacBinary, and Smart MacBinary stuff
          makes my head spin. Which should I use?
  
  Unless you know better, use Smart MacBinary, which will
  automatically select the correct transfer mode. The major exception
  is if you are uploading non-text files, such as GIFs or .zip files,
  which PC users will use. In that case, use binary to prevent Finder
  information from being sent.
  
  This reason this setting is so important is because of the Mac's
  unique file format. Macintosh files have two forks, or parts -- the
  data fork and the resource fork. The data fork holds data, which is
  usually text. The resource fork holds resources such as compiled
  code, pictures, sounds, etc. Text files are usually all data.
  Applications are mostly resources. This two part structure is
  unique to the Mac. If you send Mac files to other types of
  computers, the files will be damaged. Using MacBinary transfers
  prevents this damage.
  
  [7.03]  When I download Mac files from a PC BBS, the files have
          generic icons and are unusable. What went wrong?
  
  You didn't use MacBinary or Smart MacBinary. See 7.02.
  
  [7.04]  Which transfer protocol should I use?
  
  If the service you're calling supports ZModem, use it, because:
  
  - ZModem is very fast.
  - ZModem is a batch protocol, meaning you can place more than one
  file into a batch for uploading or downloading. Most protocols make
  you request files one at a time.
  - ZModem has crash recovery. If a 3 hour download is interrupted 1
  minute before it finishes, you can redial the service, start the
  download again, and finish where you left off.
  - ZModem receives begin automatically. To start a ZModem download,
  simply tell the other computer to begin the transfer. Your computer
  will detect a ZModem transfer and automatically enter receive mode.
  This autoreceive feature necessitates the default download folder,
  which ZTerm also uses with other transfer protocols.
  - ZModem handles XON/XOFF software flow control better than other
  protocols.
  - ZModem detects the presence of hardware error correction, such as
  MNP 4 and v.42, and turns off its own error detection. The result
  is faster throughput when using error-correcting modems.
  
  [7.05]  Does ZTerm support batch ZModem downloads?
  
  Yes. ZModem is by definition a batch protocol. To download multiple
  files from UNIX using ZModem, use the command
  
    sz -w 2048 filename1.txt filename2.hqx etc.
  
  [7.06]  Interrupting ZModem downloads is messy. What's a modem
          freak to do?
  
  Send an ASCII abort or interrupt character. The abort character
  varies from host to host, but should be either control-x or
  control-k. Control-c is the ASCII interrupt character. Whichever
  character you send, type it repeatedly.
  
  [7.07]  Can I use ZModem from my VAX or UNIX account?
  
  Yes. The necessary source code for VAX is available via anonymous
  FTP from ee.utah.edu in the directory /Comm/Rzsz. You will need
  everything but the .tar file.
  
  The source code for UNIX is available via anonymous FTP from
  sumex-aim.stanford.edu in the directory info-mac/comm. The four
  files are in UNIX shar format. I am told that the code is not ANSI
  C. My informant says that UNIX users can use the K & R compiler and
  use the command -cckr. (I've forgotten my informant's name. I hope
  he'll email me.)
  
  [7.08]  How do I prevent massive CRC errors during ZModem
          text downloads from UNIX?
  
  In the ZTerm manual, Dave Alverson suggests using "sz -w 2048
  filename". Here's an explanation from Fernmail author Dave Platt:
  
  "The commonest reason for this sort of failure-to-resynchronize is,
  in my experience, excessive data buffering between the sending "sz"
  process and the receiving program. The ZModem protocol can become
  badly confused if you're connected to your host via a TCP-based
  terminal server or some similar serial data switch. If the terminal
  server and the network software provides a substantial amount of
  data buffering (as it probably does), then the two ZModem processes
  will each see a _long_ delay between the time that they send a
  message to their peer, and the time that the response to this
  message makes it through the network to them. This delay will
  interfere with the protocol's error-recovery timeouts, and can lead
  to an endless stream of recovery attempts.
  
  "I strongly suggest using the poorly-documented "-w" option when
  downloading files from a mainframe or workstation, unless you're
  _sure_ that all of the data communication links between you and the
  host are running at the same speed and don't do data buffering. The
  "-w" option enables a four-packet sliding-window mode, which will
  guarantee that sz will never "get ahead" of your Mac by more than
  the window-size that you specify. As long as the window size is no
  more than (e.g.) 10 seconds worth of data, there won't be a problem
  with the retry timers expiring before the window is emptied.
  
  "I usually use "sz -w 2048 filename" when downloading. In fact, I
  have "sz" aliased to "sz -w 2048" to ensure that I don't forget to
  use windowed mode."
  
  [7.09]  How can I make ZModem binary downloads from UNIX more
          reliable?
  
  Joel Schulman wrote to say that he couldn't download binaries until
  he began using the -e modifier, as in
  
    sz -e filename
  
  Any feedback on this fix or why it works would be appreciated.
  
  [7.10]  I have other transfer problems with UNIX. What's Dave
          been smokin'?
  
  If you have trouble with UNIX when you use the telnet command, try
  the rlogin command, and vice versa. This tip has solved many
  problems for UNIX users.
  
  [7.11]  How can I do ZModem uploads to Delphi?
  
  One person reports that changing the ZModem options under Settings
  from rz to uz fixed his uploading problems.
  
  [7.12] Where's YModem-G Send?
  
  According to ZTerm's excellent Balloon Help, YModem1K send is the
  same as YModem-G send.
  
  [7.13] Why does YModem work on some systems and not others?
  
  What some BBSs call YModem is actually XModem-1K. If the BBS offers
  YModem and YModem Batch, use YModem Batch, which is the true YModem
  ZTerm expects. Otherwise, if YModem transfers aren't working, tell
  the BBS to send YModem, and tell ZTerm to receive XModem-1K.
  Frankly, this is just one more reason to use ZModem.
  
  [7.14] Using hardware compression makes my uploads and downloads
         slower. Was ist los?
  
  Most online files are compressed with software utilities such as
  Stuffit and Compact Pro and can't be compressed much more, if at
  all. Therefore, the time the modem spends trying to compress and
  decompress the files can actually slow down the transfers. V.42bis
  is supposed to detect compressed files and turn off its own
  compression, but it doesn't always work  If hardware compression
  causes problems, consult your modem manual to learn how to turn it
  off.
  
  [7.15] If I have the Kermit/VT102/etc. Tool, will ZTerm support
         Kermit/VT102/etc.? Are any ZModem tools available?
  
  ZTerm doesn't use the Communications Toolbox for terminal
  emulation, connection, or file transfer, so it can't use
  Communications Toolbox tools. The freeware Termy, by Tim Endres of
  Ice Engineering, can. I've used Termy and Glen Howes' freeware
  Kermit Tool GH with great success. Kermit Tool GH also works very
  well with Communicate Lite.
  
  There are no freeware or shareware ZModem tools available at this
  time, but you can download a demo of the Mark/Space ZModem tool.
  The demo allows downloading, but not uploading. Otherwise, it is
  fully functional. The demo is available via anonymous ftp from
  netcom.com in the directory pub/mspace. It should appear very soon
  at major ftp sites and online services.
  
  Payware ZModem tools ship with Pacer Software's PacerTerm (see
  MacWEEK (08.09.93), Seaquest's tools pack, Aladdin System's
  SITcomm, and DCI's CrossTalk 2.0. The next version of
  Communications Lite from Mark/Space Softworks will also include a
  ZModem tool, and will be a free upgrade for registered users. A
  demo version of Communicate Lite is available from America Online
  and via anonymous FTP from netcom.com in the directory mspace/pub.
  
  [7.16]  How can I resume downloads interrupted by a meddling
          cat?
  
  If an animal, two legged or four legged, presses the 9 key during a
  download, ZTerm will display
  
     zrdata: cnt = 1024
     zrdat32: cnt = 1024
  
  et cetera ad nauseam. To fix the problem, press the 0 (zero) key.
  My friend Neil Schulman discovered this. Dave Alverson tells him
  this behavior is actually a debugger built into ZTerm. More details
  as they become available, modem fans.
  
  [7.17]  Hellfire tarnation and a monkey! Why's my transfer
          efficiency so low?
  
  It may not be low at all. Ignore the percent efficiency figure. The
  characters per second (cps) rate is a better indicator of
  efficiency.
  
  On the Mac, one character is eight bits. Sending that character
  over a phone line requires the addition of a start bit and a stop
  bit. To convert cps to bits per second (bps), multiply cps by ten.
  The maximum theoretical efficiency without hardware compression or
  error correction would be 240 cps for 2400 bps modems, 960 for
  9600, and 1440 for 14400. The efficiency won't actually be that
  high, because of line noise and the overhead inherent in any file
  transfer protocol. Hardware error correction such as MNP 4 and V.42
  can increase throughput by as much as eight percent. Hardware
  compression such as MNP 5 and V.42bis can increase throughput
  dramatically, assuming the files aren't already compressed with
  Stuffit, Compact Pro, etc.
  
  The reason you should ignore the percent efficiency is that ZTerm
  normally calculates percent transfer efficiency by dividing the
  actual throughput by the DTE speed (what ZTerm calls the data
  rate). Assuming your modem is transferring data at exactly 14400,
  ZTerm will report the efficiency to be 14400/19200 = 75% at 19200,
  14400/38400 = 38% at 38400, and 14400/57600 = 25% at 57600. Yet in
  each case the actual transfer rate is the same.
  
  Having said all of that, you can use the percent efficiency figure
  if your modem supports the ATW2 command. When the modem is set to
  W2, ZTerm reports the connect speed as the DCE speed rather than
  the DTE speed, and calculates percent efficiency based on the DCE
  speed. So if your modem is transferring data at exactly 14400,
  ZTerm will report the efficiency to be 14400/14400 = 100%.
  
  
  [8.00]  Sound, ANSI Graphics, and Color
  
  [8.01]  Why oh why won't the ZTerm sounds play?
  
  The sounds must be stored in the System file (AKA System suitcase).
  See 8.02.
  
  [8.02]  Can I use sounds other than the ones that come with ZTerm?
  
  Absolutely. You can rename any sound to "Connect", "Filedone" or
  "Termbell" and install the sound in the System file. Under System
  7, quit all applications and desk accessories and drag the sounds
  to the icon of the closed System Folder. When asked if you want the
  sounds installed in the system file, click OK.
  
  System 6 users can install sounds into the System file using the
  shareware SoundMover (shareware by Riccardo Etore) or Apple's
  ResEdit. You can also use a resource manager, such as Fifth
  Generation System's SuitCase or Alsoft's MasterJuggler, to open the
  sounds with ZTerm.
  
  [8.03]  Is there any limit on the length of the sounds?
  
  ZTerm doesn't limit the length of the sounds, but ZTerm can't send
  or receive data while the sounds are playing. Therefore, a long
  connect sound may cause connection problems.
  
  [8.04]  How do I turn my modem speaker down or off?
  
  This one is near and dear to my heart, as I used to have the 2400
  bps Modem for the Deaf(TM). ZTerm offers three ways to turn the
  modem speaker off (AT M0), or to turn the speaker down (AT L0) if
  it's on. (All 0's are zeroes, as they always are in the Hayes
  language. The only exception is The ATOn command, which is used to
  return the modem to online mode. In that case, "O" is an "oh". The
  n is a placeholder for an integer number.)  M1 turns the speaker
  back on. L1 turns the volume back up.
  
  1. You can manually do the deed by typing AT M0 or AT L0 before you
  make a connection. This method is best if you only want to silence
  the modem for some sessions.
  
  2. To automatically change the volume when dialing a particular
  service, enter AT M0 or AT L0 in the "Pre-dial init" field in that
  service's Connection dialog. This method is best if you want the
  speaker on for some services and off for others.
  
  3. To automatically control the volume for all services, select
  Modem Preferences. Click in the "Initialize" field and use the
  cursor keys to move to the far right. Move the cursor just to the
  left of ^M  and type M0 or L0. This method is best if you want the
  speaker off for every service, every time.
  
  Incidentally, these three techniques work for any initialization
  string.
  
  [8.05]  How do I get ANSI graphics when connecting to a PC BBS?
  
  1. Select Terminal Settings for that service and choose the PC ANSI
  BBS radio button.
  
  2. Also in the Terminal Settings dialog, uncheck the "No Extended
  Characters (Strip hi bit)" box if it's checked.
  
  3. In the Color Preferences dialog, check the Use Color box.
  
  4. In the Terminal Preferences dialog, set the font size to 9 or 12
  point. Other sizes will not work with ANSI graphics. See 10.02.
  
  5. In the Monitors control panel, set the monitor depth to 256
  colors or higher. 16 colors will do in a pinch. If you normally use
  16 color video, I recommend using Jon Snell's ZTerm Speed
  Patch, which installs a 16 color palette into ZTerm.
  
  [8.06] I did all of that and the ANSI graphics still look a
         little funny. What gives?
  
  ZTerm 0.9 uses 8 colors for ANSI emulation, while some ANSI
  graphics use 16 colors. The next version will support 16 color ANSI
  emulation.
  
  
  [8.07]  How can I edit the colors ZTerm uses for ANSI graphics?
  
  Ordinarily you can't edit the colors, but you can if you use Jon
  Snell's ZTerm Speed Patch. Once you install the patch, open ZTerm
  with ResEdit, doubleclick the pltt resource, doubleclick the ID 128
  resource, and edit the colors. 
  
  For more information about ZTerm Speed Patch and where to find it,
  see "Other ZTerm Information and Software" earlier in the FAQ.
  
  [8.08]  How can I add excitement to my dull and monotonous life?
  
  Select Color Preferences and choose colored text on a darker
  background. I use yellow text on a black background. Use whatever
  colors you want. It's your life.
  
  
  [9.00]   VT100 Emulation
  
  [9.01]  I'm wiggin' out, Les. Why don't the home, end, page
          up, and page down keys on my extended keyboard work?
  
  During VT100 emulation, those keys are assigned to VT100
  operations. To make them work like normal Macintosh application
  keys, hold down the shift key and then press them.
  
  [9.02]  Why don't the f1-f4 editing keys on my extended keyboard
          work?
  
  During VT100 emulation, all of the function keys are assigned to
  VT100 operations. Use the command key shortcuts or the Edit menu.
  
  [9.03]  How can I emulate a control key on a Mac Plus?
  
  If you are using System 7 on a U.S. system, install the ZTerm
  Keyboard layout. To do this, drag the keyboard layout to the icon
  of the closed system folder. When asked if you want to install the
  keyboard layout, click OK. The option key will now emulate the
  control key.
  
  If you are using a non-U.S. system, or a system earlier than 7.0,
  select Terminal Settings from the Settings menu. Assign the control
  key function to the command key.
  
  [9.04]  How can I emulate an escape key on a Mac Plus?
  
  When Option for Control is checked in Terminal Preferences, the
  accent/grave key in the upper left hand corner of the keyboard
  emulates the escape key.
  
  [9.05]  How can I emulate function keys on a PowerBook?
  
  Connectix PowerBook Utilities (CPU) provides function key emulation
  for PowerBooks. CPU is commercial software. If anyone knows of
  freeware or shareware for emulating function keys, please let me
  know.
  
  [9.06]  How can I emulate a numeric keypad on a PowerBook?
  
  Use NumericKeypad (AKA U.S. Keypad), a ResEdit resource and keypad
  written by Mel Park, of the University of Tennessee, Memphis.
  NumericKeypad maps the numeric keypad to the regular keyboard when
  the caps lock key is engaged.
  
  [9.07]  How can I use the numeric keypad to enter numbers?
  
  The numeric keypad is sometimes used for special editing functions.
  If you always want to use it for entering numbers, turn off the
  "VT100 Keypad" option in the Terminal dialog for that service.
  
  [9.08]  Tip: positioning the cursor with the mouse.
  
  You can not only use the mouse to select text, you can also use it
  to position the cursor. Hold down the option key. The pointer will
  become diamond shaped and will move the cursor, somewhat slowly, to
  wherever you click.
  
  
  
  [10.00] Text and Text Files
  
  See also section 4.13 if you want to change ZTerm's terminal font.
  
  [10.01] Can I make the terminal font bigger?
  
  Yes. Select Terminal Preferences from the Settings menu and enter a
  larger size.
  
  [10.02] Why does onscreen text look so crummy in anything but 9 or
          12 point?
  
  ZTerm uses its own terminal font for 9 and 12 point, but uses
  Monaco for other sizes. If you want to see ANSI graphics, it is
  essential that you select 9 or 12 point. Monaco doesn't contain the
  special characters needed for ANSI emulation.
  
  A font-morphing wiz could help Dave Alverson and ZTerm users by
  creating, say, 10 and 11 point sizes of the ZTerm font. Contact
  Dave Alverson if you're interested.
  
  [10.03] Will ZTerm save text files in something other than
          TeachText?
  
  Yes. To change the application ZTerm saves text files in, choose
  General Preferences from the Settings menu and choose a new file
  creator. TeachText can't open files larger than 32K, so this
  feature is especially useful if you save large text files.
  
  [10.04] How can I increase the size of the scroll buffer?
  
  ZTerm stores the contents of the scroll buffer in memory. To
  increase the memory partition, quit ZTerm, select ZTerm's icon, and
  choose Get Info from the File menu. Now enter a larger size for
  ZTerm's memory partition.
  
  [10.05] Why do some characters get corrupted when I copy text from
          my word processor and paste it into ZTerm?
  
  The characters you've pasted are illegal on the system you're
  logged in to. A lengthy explanation follows.
  
  On the Macintosh, all eight bits of a byte are used for characters,
  producing 256 possible characters (two to the eighth power is 256),
  though some of these are dead keys, command keys, etc. Mainframes
  use only seven bits for text, producing only 128 possible
  characters (two to the seventh power is 128). This seven bit text
  is the ASCII standard (American Standard for Information
  Interchange, pronounced "asskey"). If you use any characters which
  use the eighth bit, the mainframe ignores the last bit and uses the
  first seven bits to determine which character to display.
  
  To avoid illegal characters when composing text for a mainframe,
  never use any characters which require pressing the option key.
  Also, in your word processor, turn off smart (curly) quotes, which
  use the eighth bit. When smart quotes are turned on, the word
  "don't" usually becomes "donUt" when pasted to a mainframe. And
  I'll bet dollars to donUts you donUt want that to happen.
  
  If you need to upload or paste text files containing illegal eighth
  bit characters, process the file with the Zap Gremlins command in
  BBEdit Lite 2.3 (freeware by Richard Siegel).
  
  
  [11.00] Macros and Scripting
  
  See also 4.05 for an explanation of a scripting bug and an easy
  fix.
  
  [11.01] How do I know the script is running?
  
  You will see a letter or two in the lower right hand corner of the
  terminal window. These letters are abbreviations for the command
  the script is preparing to execute. By noting which commands have
  executed, you can debug scripts more easily.
  
  These are the abbreviations and their meanings, as provided by Dave
  Alverson:
  
  b : beep
  s : send
  w : wait
  wp: wait prompt
  wq: wait for quiet
  
  [11.02] How do I cancel a script?
  
  Hold down the command key and type a period. Command-period, AKA
  the International Mac Distress Code, also cancels printing and
  pastes, in ZTerm or most other applications, and is the keyboard
  shortcut for the cancel button in most dialog boxes.
  
  [11.03] How do I send an escape/linefeed/etc. in a script?
  
  To send an escape, use the line:
  
    send "^["
  
  where "[" is the lowercase left hand bracket, and "^" is the
  shift-6 control character. Substitute "^j" for linefeeds.
  Basically, you can send any ASCII character using a script. All you
  need is a table of ASCII characters and their meaning.
  
  [11.04] Do I have to use the Wait for "da da da" prompt syntax?
  
  No.
  
    Wait prompt "da da da"
  
  works just fine.
  
  [11.05] Why is ZTerm sending only part of a line?
  
  When a line begins with the "send" command, ZTerm sends everything
  between the first set of quotes and the second set of quotes. If
  the string looks like this:
  
    send " "It is not I who am crazy ... It is I who am MAD!!!" ^M"
  
  ZTerm will send a space, since that's what's between the first and
  second set of quotes.
  
  [11.06] How can I send quotation marks within a send statement?
  
  I used to say it couldn't be done, but I found a way.
  
  ZTerm recognizes four varieties of quotation marks: single quote,
  double quote, smart single quote, and smart double quote. If you
  begin a send statement with one type, ZTerm won't stop sending
  until it reaches another quote of the same type. (It doesn't,
  however, care which way the smart quotes face.)  For instance, if
  the send line looks like this:
  
    send ' "It is not I who am crazy ... It is I who am MAD!!!" ^M'
  
  ZTerm will send everything within the single quote marks
  (apostrophes).
  
  If your send string contains double and single quotes, enclose the
  string within smart quotes. KeyCaps DA will show you the correct
  keys for producing smart quotes in your word processor or text
  editor. As a rule of thumb, don't enclose smart quotes within the
  send string. See 10.05.
  
  [11.07] What does error -49 mean?
  
  It means that the script ZTerm tried to use is open in another
  application, such as your word processor. Close the file and try
  again.
  
  [11.08] I'm goin' nuts! Why won't my login script run?
  
  Here's a shotgun blast of possibilities:
  
  1. The file may not be in the right place. Login scripts must be
  stored in the root level of the ZTerm folder. That is, you should
  be able to see the ZTerm application and the script in the same
  Finder window using an icon view.
  
  2. The file may not have the correct name. Login scripts should
  have the same name as the service, with the ".zts" extension on the
  end. If the service is called " MacClique" (note the space), the
  script should be called " MacClique.zts", with a space.
  
  3. The script may not be in text only format. ZTerm can only read
  text only files (files of type code text), such as TeachText files.
  If you write the script with your word processor, be sure to use
  the Save As command and select a text only format. If TeachText
  can't open the file, it is not in text only format. 
  
  (One exception: TeachText can't open any file larger than 32K. Or
  had I mentioned that already? If you have a working, useful script
  larger than 32K, I'd like to shake your hand.)
  
  4. The script may be an alias. ZTerm doesn't recognize aliased
  scripts.
  
  5. There may be something wrong with your login script. To test
  your script, connect to the service, select the Run Script command,
  and tell ZTerm to use the login script. If the script doesn't work
  when run manually, the script is faulty. Check spelling and syntax.
  
  
  [11.09] Login script example
  
  The login script for my university's timesharing network follows:
  
  wait prompt "Local>"
  send "c vax^M"
  wait prompt "Username:"
  send $account "^M"
  wait prompt "Password:"
  send $password "^M"
  
  Note that $account and $password are NOT inside quotation marks.
  For this script to work, the values for $account and $password must
  be entered into the Connection dialog.
  
  [11.10] Tip: sending a sig with a script and macro.
  
  UNIX users often include a signature at the end of their messages.
  The signature, or sig, often includes the person's name, email
  address, company, etc. Sigs are automated in UNIX. ZTerm users can
  easily include a sig with their email by creating a sig script.
  
  Launch your favorite text editor or word processor, set the font to
  Monaco, and write the sig as you want it to appear. Then enclose
  each line of text in quotation marks, type "send" without the
  quotes in front of each line, and include a ^M before the second
  set of quotation marks. To send a blank line, send a ^M by itself.
  Save the script in the ZTerm folder and name it sig. If you use a
  word processor, be sure to use Save As and save in a text only
  format.
  
  Example:
  
  send "************************************************************^M"
  send "Les Jones         ljones@utkvx.utk.edu        AOL:LeslieJonz^M"
  send "^M"
  send "Made from only the freshest electrons and 100% pure ASCII
  to^M"
  send "  insure that you have the best possible email experience.^M"
  send "************************************************************^M"
  
  Now launch ZTerm and choose Edit Macros from the Macro menu. Name
  the new macro sig, and type "(option-r)sig" in the Macro String
  field. Now your sig is only a macro away. You could also use the
  Run Script command under the Macro menu, but it wouldn't be as
  convenient. Enjoy!
  
  [11.11] Other uses of scripts and macros
  
  Scripts and macros can eliminate a lot of needless typing. The
  following is a script I concocted to speed up Kermit transfers on
  the VAX. (I'm really looking forward to Kermit support in the next
  version of ZTerm!)
  
  Example:
  
  wait "kermit>" prompt
  send  "SET BLOCK_CHECK_TYPE THREE_CHARACTER_CRC_CCITT^M"
  wait "kermit>" prompt
  send "SET SEND PACKET_LENGTH 1000^M"
  wait "kermit>" prompt
  send "SET RECEIVE PACKET_LENGTH 1000^M"
  
  I use the following script to log on to the sumex-aim FTP site.
  
  send "FTP sumex-aim.stanford.edu^M"
  wait prompt "Username:"
  send "anonymous^M"
  wait prompt "Password:"
  send "ljones@utkvx.utk.edu^M"
  wait prompt "FTP>"
  send "cd info-mac^M"
  
  As in the example in 11.10, I could trigger these scripts with a
  macro or with the "run script" command.
  
  [11.12] Tip: Creating a folder for scripts.
  
  ZTerm 1.0 may have a folder for storing scripts. Keith Corwin came
  up with a way to create a scripts folder using System 7 aliases.
  
  1. Make a new folder called "Scripts" inside the ZTerm folder.
  
  2. Make an alias of ZTerm.
  
  3. Put the original ZTerm (not the alias), scripts, the ZPhoneList,
  and the ZTerm Xfer Log into the Scripts folder.
  
  
  And finally, an Easter Egg. Open a copy of ZTerm in ResEdit.
  Doubleclick on the STR resource, then doubleclick on the ID=0
  resource. Inside you'll see a line from Monty Python. Enjoy!
  
  
  Send in those corrections and tips! And send Dave your shareware
  fee!